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Citations & More

Learn to choose a topic, cite and organize your sources, and get help polishing your paper

Reference Examples (7th ed.)

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

 

Article from a Reference Work with an Individual Author or No Author

  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx- xxx). Retrieved from https://www.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

Example: Adamopoulos, J. (2004). Interpersonal behavior and culture. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied psychology. Elsevier Science & Technology. Credo Reference. https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/estappliedpsyc/interpersonal_behavior_and_culture/0?institutionId=4721

Parenthetical citation: (Adamopoulos, 2004)

Narrative citation: Adamopoulos (2004)

If there is no author of the entry, use the following format:

  • Title of entry. (date). In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location(city, state): Publisher.

Example: Ruth, Babe (George Herman). (2004). In P. Cornelison, & T. Yanak, The great American history fact-finder (2nd ed.). Houghton Mifflin. Credo Reference. https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmgahff/ruth_babe_george_herman/0?institutionId=4721

Article from a Reference Work with a Group Author

  • Group Author Name. (date). Entry title. In title of work. Retrieved date of retrieval, from url

Example: Merriam-Webster. (n.d.) Self-report. In Merriam-Webster dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/self-report

Chapter/Article in a Volume of a Multivolume Work 

Author. (date). Title of chapter. In names of editor(s) (Ed. or Eds.), Title of work: Vol. #Title of volume (edition, page numbers). Publisher. doi

Example: Goldin-Meado, S. (2015). Gesture and cognitive development. In L. S. Liben & U. Mueller (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science, Vol.2Cognitive processes (7th ed., pp. 339-380). John Wiley & Sons. https:doi.org/10.1002/9781118963418.childpsy209

Entry from Wikipedia

  • Entry title. (date). In Wikipedia, url

Example: High-functioning autism. (2020, February, 12). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-functioning_autism

Parenthetical citation: ("High-functioning Autism", 2020)

Narrative citation: "High-functioning Autism" (2004)

If you quote directly from the source be sure to include the paragraph number where the quote resides in the parenthetical/narrative citations. (ex., "High-functioning autism", 2020, para. 4).

 

[Taken from pages 328 and 329, section 10.3, entries #45, #47, #48 and #49, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

Authored Book with a DOI

  • Author, A. A. (date). Title of work. https://doi:xxxxxxx

Example: Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000092-000

Edited Book with a DOI

  • Name(s) (Ed. or Eds.). (date). Title (edition, if any). Publisher. DOI

Example: Bush, S., & Heck, A. L. (Eds.). (2018). Forensic geropsychology: Practice essentials.  American Psychological Association. https://dx.doi.org/10.137/0000082-000

Chapter from an Edited Book with a DOI

  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher. DOI

Example: Balsam, K. F., Martell, C. R., Jones, K. P., & Safren. S.A. (2019). Affirmative cognitive behavior therapy with sexual and gender minority people. In G. Y. Iwamasa & P. A. Hays (Eds.), Culturally responsive cognitive behavior therapy: Practice and supervision (2nd ed., pp. 287-314). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000119-012

 

NOTE: For more information about source formatting for eBooks, refer to the APA-style Blog.

 

[Taken from pages 321 through 323, 326 through 329, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

Data Set

  • Author or Group Name. (date). Title (series or version no.) [Data set]. Source/Publisher. DOI

Examples: D'Souza, A., & Wiseheart, M. (2018). Cognitive effects of music and dance training in children (ICPSR 37080; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR37080.v1

National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). Fast Response Survey System (FRSS): Teachers' use of educational technology in U.S. public schools, 2009 (ICPSR 35531; Version V3) [Data set and code book]. National Archive Data on Arts and Culture. https://doi.org/3886/ICPSR35531.v3

Pew Research Center. (2018). American trends panel Wave 26 [Data set]. https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/dataset/american-trends-panel-wave-26

Unpublished Raw Data

  • Author. (date). [Type of data information]. Source.

Examples: Baer, R. A. (2015). [Unpublished raw data on the correlations between the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills]. University of Kentucky.

Oregon Youth Authority. (2018). Recidivism outcomes. [Unpublished raw data].

[Information taken from pages 337-338, section 10.9, entries #75 and #76, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

Doctoral Dissertation or Master's Thesis from a Database

  • Author, A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis, name of institution).  Name of database.

Example: Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Sullivan, W. D. (2017). A case study exploring international student engagement at small, private colleges. https://nnu.whdl.org

Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis

  • Author, A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of institution. 

Example: Sullivan, W. D. (2017). A case study exploring international student engagement at small, private colleges.[Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Northwest Nazarene University

Doctoral Dissertation or Thesis published Online (not in a database) 

  • Author, A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution). URL

Example: Sullivan, W. D. (2017). A case study exploring international student engagement at small, private colleges [Doctoral dissertation, Northwest Nazarene University]. https://nnu.whdl.org

[Taken from pages 333-334, section 10.6, entries #64 through #66, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, and/or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

 

DSM-V & ICD

  • Corporate author. (date). Title (edition). doi

American Psychiatric Association. (2013).  Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

World Health Organization. (2019). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (11th ed.). https://icd.who.int/

Parenthetical citation with abbreviation included:

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (11th ed.; ICD-11). 

Narrative citation with abbreviation included:

American Psychiatric Association's (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5)

World Health Organization's (2019) International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (11th ed.; ICD-11)

Subsequent parenthetical citations:

(American Psychiatric Association, 2013; World Health Organization, 2019)

Subsequent narrative citations:

American Psychiatric Association (2013) and World Health Organization (2019)

[Taken from page 324, section 10.2, entry #32, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, and/or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

 

ERIC Documents (ED)

  • Author, A. (Year). Document title. (ED######). ERIC. URL or file name (pdf link)

Example: Cochrane, T., Antonczak, L., Guinibert, M., & Mulrennan, D. (2014). Developing a mobile social media framework for creative pedagogies. (ED557171). ERIC. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED557241.pdf

 

NOTE: If the item in the ERIC database has an EJ before the number it is a journal article. Cite it as a journal article, not as an ERIC document.

[Taken from page 337, section 10.8, entry #74, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Also, use CrossRef to locate a doi if the database from which you found the article does not list one. Use the "Search an Article Title" option. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

Journal Article with DOI

  • Author, A., & Author, B. (Date). Title of article. Title of journalvolume(issue), page number(s). http..........

Example: Berger, I. (2015). Educational leadership with an ethics of plurality and natality. Studies in Philosophy & Education34(5), 475-487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11217-014-9448-x

Parenthetical citation: (Berger, 2015)

If you use a direct quote from the source: (Berger, 2015, p.477)

Narrative citation: Berger (2015) OR Berger demonstrated that ....... (2015)

If you quote directly from the source: Berger (2015, p. 477) noted, "......" OR Berger noted, "......." (2015, p.477)

Journal Article without a DOI and a nondatabase URL

  • Author, A. (Date). Title of article. Title of journalvolume(issue), page number(s). URL

Example: Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability31(1), 17-39. https://www.ahead.org/professonal-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volume-31

Parenthetical citation: (Ahmann et al., 2018)

 If you quote directly from the source: (Ahmann et al., 2018, p. 22)

Narrative citationAhmann et al. (2018) OR Ahmann et al. ..... (2018)

If you quote directly from the source: Ahmann et al. (2018, p. 22) noted, "......" OR Ahmann et al. noted, "......." (2018, p.22)

Journal, Magazine, or Newspaper Article without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version 

  • Author, A. (Date). Title of article. Title of journalvolume(issue), page number(s). 

Examples: Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership76(1), 26-33. 

                     Goldman, C. (2018, November 28). The complicated calibration of love, especially in adoption. Chicago Tribune.

Parenthetical citation: (Anderson, 2018; Goldman, 2018)

 If you use a direct quote from the source: (Berger, 2015, p.30; Goldman, 2018, para.#)

Narrative citation: Anderson (2018) OR Anderson demonstrated that ....... (2018); Goldman (2018) reported that....

If you quote directly from the source: Anderson (2018, p. 30) noted, "......" OR Anderson noted, "......." (2018, p.30)

Journal Article with a DOI, 21 or more authors

  • Author, 1, Author, 2, Author, 3, Author, 4, Author, 5, Author, 6 . . . last author. (Date). Title of article. Title of journal, volume(issue), page numbers. http.............

Example: Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., ... & Zhu, Y. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society77(3), 437-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077%3C0437:TNYRP%3E2.0.CO;2

[Taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., p. 317, section 10.1, entries #1-5]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

 

Magazine Article

  • Author, A. (Year, Month). Title of article. Title of magazine, volume(issue), page numbers.

Example: Turner, P. (2017, September/October). Catholics and the Protestant Reformation. Holiness Today​, 19(5), 25-27.

Online Magazine Article

  • Author., A. (Year, Month). Title of article. Title of magazine. Retrieved from [insert URL of article]

Example: Wapner, J. (2018, June). Could fasting cure diabetes?: Evidence on not eating for long stretches is compelling-and controversial. Newsweek. Retrieved from https://www.newsweek.com/could-fasting-cure-diabetes-evidence-not-eating-long-stretches-compelling-and-962014

Newspaper Article

  • Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of newspaper, page numbers.

Example: Wright, S. (2018, June 6). Non-native shrimp dumped in the Boise River are thriving. Idaho Statesman, pp.4A.

Online Newspaper Article

  • Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of newspaper. Retrieved from (insert URL of newspaper website)

Example: Myers, S. L., & Perlez, J. (2018, June 6). A medical mystery grows as U.S. consulate workers in China fall ill. Seattle Times. Retrieved from https://www.seattletimes.com/nation-world/medical-mystery-grows-as-more-u-s-consulate-workers-in-china-fall-ill/

Webpage from an Online News Source

  • Author. (date). Article title. Source. URL

Example: Andrews, S. (2020, February 24). A heat wave in Antarctica melted 20% of an island's snow in 9 days. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/24/world/antarctica-heat-wave-melt-february-trnd/index.html

Editorial

  • Author. (date). Title [Editorial]. Sourcevolume(issue), page #. doi

Example: Elders, M. J. (2012). Coming to grips with the U.S. adolescent birth rate [Editorial]. American Journal of Public Health102(112), 2205-2206. http://dx.doi.org.nnu.idm.oclc.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300978 

[Information taken from pages 320, entries #15 through #19, and page 351, entry #110 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

 

Test, Scale, or Inventory

  • Author. (date). Title. URL

Example: Project Implicit. (n.d.). Gender-Science IAT. https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/takeatest.html

Database Record for a Test

  • Author. (date). Title [Database record]. Name of database. DOI (if available)

Example: Soares, L. M., & Soares, A. T. (1999). Self-Perceptions Inventory [1999 Revision] (The) [Database record]. Mental Measurements Yearbook. 

Manual for a Test, Scale, or Inventory

  • Author. (date). Title. Publisher.

Example: Tellegen, A., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2011). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): Technical manual. Pearson.

[Taken from pages 340 and 341, section 10.11, entries #81 through #83, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

Personal communications is defined as email correspondence, text messages, interviews, live speeches, classroom lectures, memos, etc.. Since these works are not easily replicated or recoverable, references to the content should be cited in the text. 

Parenthetical citation: (T. Nguyen, personal communication, February 24, 2020)

Narrative citation: T. Nguyen (personal communication, February 24, 2020)

[Taken from page 260, section 8.9, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

Works, such as the Bible, Qur'an, and Torah, will now have entries in the Reference list. In previous editions of APA-style, such works had only parenthetical references.

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)

The Qur'an (M. A. S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.). (2004). Oxford University Press.

The Torah: The five books of Moses (3rd ed.). (2015). The Jewish Publication Society. (Original work published in 1962).

Parenthetical citation:

(King James Bible, 1769/2017; The Qur'an, 2004; The Torah, 1962/2015)

Narrative citation: 

King James Bible (1769/2017), The Qur'an (2004), and The Torah (1962/2015)

[Taken from page 325, section 10.2, entry #35 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

 

Blog Posts

  • Author. (date). Title of post. Source title + URL OR Source URL

Examples: Klymkowski, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed. https://blogs.plos.org/scied/2018/09/15/can-we-talk-scientifically-about-free-will/

Bal, R. (n.d.). Emotional charge of trauma. https://rolandbal.com/emotional-charge/

Social Media

Tweet

  • Author and Twitter handle. (date). Title. [notation] [form]. Twitter. URL

Example: APA Education [@APAEducation]. (2018, June 29). College students are forming mental-health clubs--and they're making a difference @washingtonpost [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/apaeducation/status/1012810490530140161

Facebook Post

  • Name. (date). Title [notation][type of post]. Facebook. URL

Example: Gaiman, N., (2018, June 29). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at serious risk during Bangladesh's monsoon season.  My fellow UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [Image attached][Status update]. Facebook. http://bit.ly/2JQxPAD

 

Webpages and Websites

Webpage on a Website with a Group Author and with no date

  • Author or Group.  (Date of publication). Title of page. URL

Example: Right to Life of Idaho. (n.d.). Legislation. http://www.rtli.org/legislation.html

          

Webpage on a Website with an Individual Author

  • Author, A. A. (date). Title. URL

Examples: Graham, L. (2016, November 29). Mindfulness, self-compassion and resilience. Resources for Recovering Resilience. https://lindagraham-mft.net/mindfulness-self-compassion-and-resilience/

 

[Information taken from pages 320 and 350 through 352, sections 10.1, entry #17 & 10.16, entries #111 through #114, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

The UptoDate database is unique in the sense that entries are peer-reviewed (like many journal articles), but it may also be considered an online reference work. The following outlines how you should cite an entry obtained through the UptoDate database.

 

Author 1, & Author 2. (date). Title of entry. In first and middle initial last name (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved month day, year, from url of entry.

Example:

Twaddle, M. L., & McCormick, E. (2016). Palliative care delivery in the home. UpToDate. Retrieved October 29, 2019, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/palliative-care-delivery-in-the-home

Parenthetical citation:  (Twaddle & McCormick, 2016)

If you quoted directly from the source, (Twaddle & McCormick, 2016, para. #)

Narrative citation: Twaddle and McCormick (2016) OR Twaddle and McCormick indicated that ...... (2016)

If you quoted directly from the source, include the paragraph number for where the information is located.

[Information taken from page 319, section 10.1, entry #14, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.), the APA blog. You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

 

YouTube Videos

Author, A. (person or organization who posted the video) (Year, Month Day video posted). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. URL

Example: Mind, the mental health charity. (2014, October 8). Mental health: In our own words [Video]. YouTube.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_y97VF5UJcc

TedTalks

Speaker name.  (Year, Month). Title of video [Video].TED Conferences. URL 

Example: Blum, N. (2017, January). The mental health system: A call for change [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gI9Ddz0yW7o

 

[Information taken from pages 343 and 344, section 10.12, entries #88 and #90, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

APA General Formatting Basics

Setting up an APA-style Paper in Google Drive (video)

Before you upload to file to Canvas you may want to download the file as a PDF rather than a MS Word document. This will better preserve the spacing and indentation.

Setting up an APA-style Paper in MS Word (video)

 

Running Head

One important change to note between APA 6 and APA 7 is the omission of the Running head for student papers. If you are planning to submit your manuscript for publication, the Running head is required. Please refer to the following information regarding Running heads from the Online Writing Lab (OWL) @ Purdue.

You may also find the information on page 37 (entry #2.8) in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.

Font, Margins, Spacing

Font type and size should be consistent throughout the entire document.

  • sans-seriff font (e.g., 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-Lucida)
  • seriff font (e.g.,12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, 10-point Computer Modern)

Margins should be 1" on all sides.

Entire document should be double-spaced.

[Information taken from pages 44-45 in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed.]

Headings

Section 2.27 (pages 47 to 49) defines the types and usage of headings.

Punctuation & Italics

"Punctuation establishes the cadence of a sentence, telling readers where to pause (comma, semicolon, and colon), stop (period and question mark), or take a detour (dash, parentheses, and square brackets). . . different kinds of punctuation indicate different kinds and lengths of pauses" (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 2019, p.153).

  • Period (section 6.2, page 154): Defines the cases of when to and not to use a period. A single space between the period is the start of the next line is rule.
  • Comma (section 6.3, page 155): Defines the cases of when to and not to use a comma.
  • Semicolon (section 6.4, page 156): Defines the cases of when to and not to use a semicolon.
  • Colon (section 6.5, pages 156-157): Defines the cases of when to and not to use a colon.
  • Dash (section 6.6, page 157): Defines the cases of when to and not to use a dash.
  • Quotation Marks (section 6.7, pages 157-159): Defines the cases of when to and not to use quotation marks.
  • Parentheses (section 6.8, pages 159-160): Defines the cases of when to and not to use parentheses.
  • Square Brackets (section 6.9, page 160): Defines the cases of when to and not to use square brackets.
  • Slash (section 6.10, pages 160-161): Defines the cases of when to and not to use a slash.
  • Italics (section 6.22-6.23, pages 170-172): Defines the cases of when to and not to italics.

Capitalization & Abbreviations

  • Capitalization (sections 6.13 through 6.21, pages 165 to 169): Defines the cases of when to and not to use capitalization.
  • Abbreviations (sections 6.24 through 6.31, pages 172 to 178): Defines the cases of when to and not to use abbreviations.

Numbers, Statistical & Mathematical, and Lists

  • Numbers (sections 6.32 through 6.39, pages 179 to 181): Defines the cases of when to and not to use numbers.
  • Statistical & Mathematical (sections 6.40 through 6.45, pages 181 to 188): Defines the cases of when to and not to use statistical and mathematical expressions
  • Lists (sections 6.49 through 6.52, pages 189 to 191): Defines the cases of when to and not to use lists​

Additional Topics 

  • Figures and Tables
  • Quotations
  • References page: The word References should be centered.  Double-space all entries.  Use a hanging indent (first line flush left and subsequent lines are indented)
  • Creating an APA 7-style Reference page video. (This is a long video, nearly 24 minutes long. Use the labeled time stamp to find the section or topic in which you are most interested).
  • Sample APA-style Paper (courtesy of the American Psychological Association)