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APA Manual

APA Formatting for Papers, Dissertations, and Theses

Basic format rules for APA papers

This 4 minute, 56 second video demonstrates how to create a template for APA-style margins, title page, and running heads.

Citing sources intext using APA-style can be confusing. The following text provides some examples. Additionally, the web links below provide some additional information on intext citations

Intext, or parenthetical references:

Use one of the following formats when citing a source in the context of a discussion board post, blog, or paper. The first two examples are if the idea of from the source is being paraphrased; the last two examples are if the source is directly quoted:

  • Smith (2011) indicated that .......
  • .............. (Smith, 2011).
  • According to Smith (2011), ".............." (p.#).
  • "...................." (Smith, 2011, p.#).

If you are including more than one citation in the parens ( ), the citations should be alphabetized and separated by a semicolon:

  • (Abbot & Sims, 2011; Frank, 2014; Hapy & Gunter, 2014)

This exercise will take you step-by-step through the mechanics of formatting your manuscript so that it conforms to the APA 6th edition and also the NNU Guidelines required for submitting a dissertation or master's thesis for publication to your program and to the NNU Library for publication. 

1. Download the sample doc and open in Word.

2. Open up the APA Formatting exercise in another window and/or watch the video tutorials.  Follow these instructions carefully and apply each step to the "sample Doc" that you have opened in Word.  Each heading in the exercise is also a link to the animated tutorial demonstrating exactly how to do each step.  Follow these instructions in the order given and you will be on your way! 

All of these video tutorials are based on Microsoft Office Word 2010 for PC

NNU uses the ProQuest/UMI online tool for submitting your dissertations to your advisory and chair.  This tool manages the review, clearing, and publishing of your manuscript in the most efficient fashion .  Check with your department or program coordinator for deadlines and submission guidelines specific to your program. 

Video Tutorials - How to Submit your manuscript online

Support and Resources for online submission

Ready?  Submit and Upload your dissertation/thesis to your NNU Program Administrator here

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Reference Examples

For additional source formats (not listed in the tabs above) and formatting refer to the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, and/or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

Print Books and Ebooks

  • Author, A. A. (date). Title of work. Location (City, State): Publisher.
  • Author, A. A. (date). Title of work. Retrieved from https://www.xxxxxxxxxx 

Example: Cunningham, H. (1995). God and Caesar at the Rio Grande: Sanctuary and the politics of religion. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=56538&site=ehost-live&scope=site

NOTE: If you get the eBook through one of the library's vendors (EBSCO, eBook Central) make sure to remove the proxy prefix from the URL (everything from https:// to the = (equal) symbol). Contact a librarian if you have questions!

  • Author, A. A. (date). Title of work. doi:xxxxxxx

Example: Bush, S., & Heck, A. L. (Eds.). (2018). Forensic geropsychology: Practice essentials. https://dx.doi.org/10.137/0000082-000

  • Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (date). Title of work. Location (city, state): Publisher.

Chapter from a Book

  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location(city, state): Publisher.
  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx- xxx). Retrieved from https://www.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx (or, Available from Ebook Central)
  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). doi:xxxxxxxxxxx

If there is no author of the entry, use the following format:

  • Title of entry. (date). In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location(city, state): Publisher.

 

NOTE: For more information about source formatting for eBooks, refer to the APA-style Blog

 

[Taken from page 202, section 7.02, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, and/or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

 

Chapter or Entry from a Book

  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location(city, state): Publisher.

Example: Portes, P. R. (1996). Ethnicity and culture in educational psychology. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee (eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 331-357). New York, NY: Macmillan Library Reference.

  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx- xxx). Retrieved from https://www.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx 

Example: Adamopoulos, J. (2004). Interpersonal behavior and culture. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Encyclopedia of applied psychologyRetrieved from https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/estappliedpsyc/interpersonal_behavior_and_culture/0?institutionId=4721

NOTE: Remove the proxy prefix from the beginning of the URL (everything between https:// and the = (equal) symbol). 

  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (date). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). doi:xxxxxxxxxxx

If there is no author of the entry, use the following format:

  • Title of entry. (date). In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location(city, state): Publisher.

Several volumes in a multivolume work, use the following format:

  • Editor. (date). Title of work (Vols. 1-25). Location (city, state): Publisher.

Example: English, F. W. (Ed.). (2006). Encyclopedia of educational leadership and administration (Vols. 1-2). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

[Taken from page 202, section 7.02, in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, and/or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

Journal Article with DOI

  • Author, A., & Author, B. (Date). Title of article. Title of journalvolume(issue), page number(s). doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Example: Berger, I. (2015). Educational leadership with an ethics of plurality and natality. Studies in Philosophy & Education34(5), 475-487. doi:10.1007/s11217-014-9448-x

Journal Article with DOI and More than Seven Authors

  • Author, 1, Author, 2, Author, 3, Author, 4, Author, 5, Author, 6, . . . last author. (Date). Title of article. Title of journal, volume(issue), page numbers. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxx

Example: Tengbeh, A. F., Enria, L., Smout, E., Mooney, T., Callaghan, M., Ishola, D., . . . Lees, S. (2018). “We are the heroes because we are ready to die for this country”: Participants' decision-making and grounded ethics in an Ebola vaccine clinical trial. Social Science & Medicine, 203, 35-42. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.03.008

Journal Article without DOI (when DOI is not available)

  • Author, A. (Date). Title of article. Title of journal, volume(issue), page numbers. Retrieved from [insert website URL of journal publisher).

OR

  • Author, A. (Date). Title of articleTitle of journalvolume(issue), page numbers.

Magazine Article

  • Author, A. (Year, Month). Title of article. Title of magazine, volume(issue), page numbers.

Example: Turner, P. (2017, September/October). Catholics and the Protestant Reformation. Holiness Today‚Äč, 19(5), 25-27.

Online Magazine Article

  • Author., A. (Year, Month). Title of article. Title of magazine. Retrieved from [insert URL of magazine].

Example: Wapner, J. (2018, June). Could fasting cure diabetes?: Evidence on not eating for long stretches is compelling-and controversial. Newsweek. Retrieved from https://www.newsweek.com

Newspaper Article

  • Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of newspaper, page numbers.

Example: Wright, S. (2018, June 6). Non-native shrimp dumped in the Boise River are thriving. Idaho Statesman, pp.4A.

Online Newspaper Article

  • Author, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of newspaper. Retrieved from (insert URL of newspaper website)

Example: Myers, S. L., & Perlez, J. (2018, June 6). A medical mystery grows as U.S. consulate workers in China fall ill. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com

[Taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., pp. 198-200, section 7.01]

The UptoDate resource is unique in the sense that entries are peer-reviewed (like many journal articles), but it may also be considered an online reference work. The following outlines how you should cite an entry obtained through the UptoDate resource.

 

Author 1, & Author 2. (date). Title of entry. In first and middle initial last name (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved month day, year, from url of entry.

Example:

Twaddle, M. L., & McCormick, E. (2016). Palliative care delivery in the home. In D. M. F. Savarese (Ed.) UpToDate. Retrieved October 29, 2018, https://www-uptodate-com.nnu.idm.oclc.org/contents/palliative-care-delivery-in-the-home?search=patient%20safety%20and%20bedside%20report&source=search_result&selectedTitle=24~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=24

The corresponding intext reference would be: (Twaddle & McCormick, 2016)

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, and/or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

Doctoral Dissertation and Master's Thesis

  • Author, A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Retrieved from Name of database (Accession or Order No.)

Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis

  • Author, A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of institution. Location.

Doctoral dissertation , from an institutional database

Author, A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from (insert source link)

Examples:

From a Commercial Database

Hunt, J. J. (2009). Characteristics of latinos with no usual source of care. Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (Order No. 3481360).

 

From an Institutional Database

Sullivan, W. D. (2017). A case study exploring international student engagement at small, private colleges. Retrieved from https://nnu.whdl.org

 

 

[Taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., pp. 207-208, section 7.05]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, and/or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

 

YouTube Videos

Author, A. (person or organization who posted the video) (Year, Month Day video posted). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from (insert URL for the video)

Example: Mind, the mental health charity. (2014, October 8). Mental health: In our own words [Video file]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_y97VF5UJcc

TedTalks

Author, A. (speaker) (Year, Month). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from (insert URL of video).

Example: Blum, N. (2017, January 19). The mental health system: A call for change [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gI9Ddz0yW7o

For more information on citing a TedTalk, refer to the APA Blog

[Taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., p.215, section 7.11 #77; and the APA Blog]

Always verify formatting of electronically generated citations with either the Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue, and/or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). You may also consult with a librarian or Writing Center tutor regarding source citation formatting. Make sure to double space and insert the hanging indent for all sources.

 

ERIC Documents (ED)

  • Author, A. (Year). Document title. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED######)

Example: Cochrane, T., Antonczak, L., Guinibert, M., & Mulrennan, D. (2014). Developing a mobile social media framework for creative pedagogies. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED557171)

 

NOTE: If the item in the ERIC database has an EJ before the number it is a journal article. Cite it as a journal article, not as an ERIC document.

[Taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., p. 212, section 7.09, #62]

There are a few ways for citing sources pulled from the Web. Listed below are a few examples:

 

Webpage or Portion of Online Content

Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Date of publication). Title of page [Format description when necessary].

         Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Elwell, N. (n.d.). Gender. Retrieved from https://www.wri.org/our-work/topics/gender

          

Chapter/Section of a Web Document or Online Book Chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter

         or section number). Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

1. Engelshcall, R. S. (1997). Module mod_rewrite: URL Rewriting Engine. In Apache HTTP Server version 1.3

        documentation (Apache modules). Retrieved from https://httpd.apache.org/docs/1.3/mod/mod_rewrite.html

2. Peckinpaugh, J. (2003). Change in the Nineties. In J. S. Bough and G. B. DuBois (Eds.), A century of growth in

         America. Retrieved from GoldStar database.

Note: Include an identifier for the chapter or section and a URL that points directly to the referenced item rather than to the main website.

 

Data Sets

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from

      https://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

 

Blog (Weblog) or Video Blog Posts

J Dean. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? [web log comment]. Retrieved from

      https://www.spring.org.uk/the1sttransport

Psychology Video Blog #3 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqM90eQi5-M

Note: If the author's name is not available, use the screen name.

 

Information taken from: Purdue Online Writing Lab (APA) and the APA Publication Manual, page 205 (entry #29), page 211 (entry #54), and page 215 (entries #76 and #77).

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Need More Help?

The following resources are available to you if you need further assistance with formatting source citations:

Librarians -- Make an appointment using the "Schedule an Appointment" link on the librarian profile, or chat with us!

Writing Center -- Walk ins or online submissions 

OWL -- Online Writing Lab @ Purdue University